THE LAND OF CULTURE AND ADVENTURE

History:
The oldest evidence of human activity is of Stone Age. Peoples on the Potohar plateau to the Northwest Punjab, the Dravidians were late Stone Age hunter gathered. Communities in the Punjab Sindh Excavation indicate primitive agriculture in the up land valleys of Baluchistan by the late 4th Millennium BC. In the 3rd Millennium BC. Permanent villages forming were in sequence.

Indus Valley Civilization:
The Indus valley civilization flourished from 23rd to 18th centuries BC. Its biggest and largest sites are Mohenjo-Daro and Harapa. It was literally agriculture society dominated by the Egyptians Named Maspothanian. Who took the swing route of the Makran Coast?

Indo-Aryan:
A wave of Aryans rose up from Central Asia to South Asia in 18th country BC, Spoken an early common ancestor of all Indo-European languages, totally depended Agricultural from north to south. They have had sheep’s to produce woolen cloths were called Gandhari, which gradually, converted to Gandhara.

Alexander the Great:
The first European invader who seined the Persians and took his way to the North of Afghanistan into the North Frontier of Pakistan in 327 BC to seined. Taxishila the last Achemenied empire of Taxila. Embhi the Akhminid empire gave him a great tribulation, and they both took over Punjab from Porus the great 326 BC.

Mouryans:
The Mouryan Empire Chandragupta Mouria rose up from east India, Sieged Taxila and sends his grandson Ashoka, who later become a famous King in Taxila. His conversion to Buddhism in 262 BC. Was a great change for Buddhism world, he trained Missionaries and send them to deferent part of the world and in a short time Taxila become a secrete Place for the Buddhist world.

Bactarian Sythians Parthian:
After the decline of the Moryan, dynasty a wave a Bactrian rose up from North of Afghanistan, in the 2nd century BC. To Gandhra, After the settlement, they built a new city, called sirkap and ruled up to 180 BC. They ruled over Gandhra and Indus valley civilization. A wave a of Sakas or Scythians rose up from central Asia, Pushed out the bactarians and settled down building new cities as well as Muhra Muradu in Taxila, Which was abundant up to 3rdcentury AD. The Persian rulers Parthians under the powerful King Ghandophereness, who found Gandhra is capital and built a new city in the Mardan region at Takh-e-bahi, which is flourished up to 3rd century AD.

Kushans:
Another tribe drive out from Central Asia were the Yueh Chih, or Kushans by the 2nd century AD, they had forged an Empire under their greatest kings, Kanishka, which spread from Uzbekistan to Buluchistan and the Ganges, ruling it from Peshawar under the Kushans Buddhism experienced and intellectual flooring found expression in an extra ordinary fusion of Indian and Greek art spread over from Gandhara to Central Asia- China and later to Tibet. In Kanishka, s trade and Buddhist art developed in the ruling areas. The Kushans brand of rulers, ruled Gandhra up to 6th century AD.

Little Kushans:
The Kidar dynasty, which is called little Kushans, flourished –up to 455.

Huns & Shahis:
Gandhra and the Gupta land were ruled in the 5th century AD. By the hepthlelitises are white Huns. From Central Asia through the lasted a few generations Gandhra have recovered. The Turkish Hindu Shahi dynasty of Afghanistan above them from Gandhara, but the Chinese pilgrims Fah Yuien on an Epic 15 years journey to India in the 5th century found Buddhism still alive in Gandhra. A 7th century Monk traveler Hsuan Tsang found it retreating on the mountains increasingly Ritualostic and Mystic Form. The last Turkic Hindu Shahi dynasty over in 9th century took by the Barhamans and ruled up to 10th century AD.

Islam:
In AD 712 an Arab invader under the young commander Hajag bin-Yousuf sailed from Baghdad on the Makran Coast to the Indus region. At Deble near Karachi. He took over Sind from a strong Hindu King Raja Daher and Islam flourished in the region. The other Arab invader Muhammad Bin Qasim, who marched up to the Indus valley to upper Punjab region. He came to Multan in 11th century. Meanwhile the Gazanavd dynasty roused up from Central Asia in 1001 seized the Peshawar valley, Swat and marched down to Multan and its neighboring region to Dheli. And Islam became the majorities’ religion in sub-continent.

Moguls: 
In 1524 Zaheer -uddin Babar, the first Mogul Emperor the descendent of Changez Khan of Mangolia, ruled up from Central Asia to the Indian Sub-content, he came from Afghanistan to Peshawar, built a fort, named Bala Hisar Fort, that was his 1st fort in the region, he marched down to the Indus river, following the Kabul river cross the Indus at Attack region and built a Fort in Attack in 1581. After his death, his Son Hamayoun became the Mogul emperor defeated by Afghan King, Sher Shah Suri, Seiged the Sub-Continent, His total attraction was to build the Silk Route in good condition for trade. He built Karvan Sarai, s, wells for drinking water in every twenty miles. After a short time it was seized by the 3rd Mogul emperor Akbar in 1524. He start building Lahore Fort in 1560, and walled city containing with 12 gates around the city, and later his son Aurangzab Alamgir, who built the Shahi Mosque in Lahore and Jahangir, s living rooms, and later his son Shah Jahan the great builders, who built Shish Mahle Devan Khas, Devan Aram, Maktab Khana, Moti Masjed, Lal Burg, Kala Burg, Ladies sleeping rooms, Turkish style of Bathrooms, Hati Pare. The Mogul dynasty flourished up to 1560 and the capital was Lahore, The birthplace of Aurangzab and Shah Jahan.

Sikh:
After the decline of the Mogul dynasty Renjet Sing, the founder of the Sikh dynasty was the Governor of the Shah Jahan in India. Who found his capital in Lahore and seiged the Sub-Continent merged, the North West Frontier region in his dynasty.
Sikhism was founded in the 15th Century as a new religion attempted to Shed the Dogma and Synthesize, the basic of the major religion in this, it was influence by Sufism of Islam. A mystical arm. It prospered under Akbar, but grew increasingly militarized under persecution under Aurangzab. In 17thcentury the last Sikh Guru. Gobind Singh found the Kalasa Orthodox brotherhood of Holiworiers, this philosophy was introduce in the Sikh region, which still existing in the Sikh community.
In uprising of the Sikh community was in 1841 and later the war started between British Gresion. And Sikh Army.

British:
In 1600 Queen Elizabeth announced a business package to British traders to find market in Asia for cotton, Rice, Spices and the 1st place the found in India as east India company, which became, they final residence of the British empire, who rolled the sub-continent properly from 1889 till 1947.

Pakistan:
Pakistan existed as independent country on Aug 14-1947 from British India.

Population:
Pakistan population is 182.1 Million (2013)

Area:
The land of Pakistan covers an Area of 800,000 Square Km.

Climate: 
A quarter of the country has less than 120 millimeters, and three quarters less than 250 millimeters of annual rains. The monsoon reaches mostly in the narrow belt of Punjab at times up to the lower mountain slopes of north, causing rainfall to about 500 millimeters per year with heavy summer storms from July to September.
June and July are the hottest with mid-day temperatures in the 30c. in towns and between 10-25c, in the mountains.
December, January, and February are the coldest months with daytime temperatures ranging between 10-25c. In the plains and between 5-20c, in the northern areas. It is naturally cooler at higher altitudes in summers, and very cold in the winter months.

Geography:
Strategically Pakistan is situated at an important point of Central Asia and South Asia, bordered with India in the east, in the south with Arabian Sea, in the west with Iran, and with North west with Afghanistan to extreme North with China, and Tajikistan.

Provinces: Administratively Pakistan has four provinces.

1. Sind
The Name Sind derived from Sindu-the (River Indus) situated at the North of Arabian sea, its capital at Karachi highly populated by 11 Million inhabitants, Sind is famous for its history, Thatta, Makli, Mohenjo-Daro, and many shrines from Kalorah Dynasty, Sind is famous for Ajrak, with local block print and pottery –Place of Sufi Shrines Bhit Shah, and Shahbaz Qalander at Sehwan Sharif, The Largest Lake Mancher, for Boating and fishing.

2.Punjab
Punj-Aab – Five Rivers, the name Punjab means the place of Five Rivers, they are Jehlum, Ravi Sataluj-Chanab and Indus. It was once one of the important places for the Moguls; it’s a birthplace of the Mogul Kings Aurangzeb Alamgir and Shah Jahan. The famous Grand Trunk Road, the ancient Silk Route used for traders from Central Asia to South Asia. Punjab is totally agricultural province that’s the reason the industry mostly developed, in Punjab very quick.
Punjab is highly populated province in Pakistan, its is capital Lahore. Most of the Shrines of Moghuls and Buddhist. Sultan of Delhi is in Punjab. The famous Harapa, from 23rd B.C. Mogul heritage, the Shrines of the Afghan Kings, and the famous Grand trunk Road, it is a place of Artisans and a place of Sufi Shrines built with beautiful tiles in 11th century to 16th centuries.

Lahore has been the capital of Punjab for nearly more then 1000 years. From 1021 to 1186. It was governed by Mohammed of Ghaznavi under the Ghaznavid dynasty-then ruled by Muhammad of Ghor and finally by many sultans of Delhi.

Lahore reached its full glory under Moguls rule (1524-1752) the third Moghul Emperors Akbar held his court in Lahore from 1584-1598 during which time he built Lahore fort and Old City with 12 gates. Jahangir and his successor Shah Jahan added to the fort palaces and tombs, and Laid out Gardens the last of the great Moghuls Emperors Aurangzab erected Lahore most famous monuments, The great Shahi Mosque in 1674 to 1707.

In the 18th and 19th centuries the Sikh also had their Capital at Lahore. It is said that they took many Marbles from the Mogul Monuments to build golden temple at Amritsar twice over.

Lahore is center place of the surrounded towns and villages, which they have the great cultural heritage from the past, with famous Artisan of Mogul arts and Artisans, it is easily accessible by Road and by Air from all over the world in Pakistan’s other places. Its old and new cities attract you more.

Multan
Multan is an ancient Saints city of Pakistan.
Multan is the most important city in the lower Punjab after Lahore. Strategically placed at the cross roads of the main trade route, through Pakistan’s and at what was once the confluence of the Ravi, Chanab Rivers. Today Ravi joins the chenab 40 KM to the North of Multan has been rich and well-defended city for more then 2000 year. Multan is reached by Road and by Air every hour. Multan was invaders by many huaders and features continuously are the history of Subcontinent the Morays Kushans. Bactarians, sythians and Parthians Alexander the great. Who wounded in Multan fort in 324 BC. Moguls Ghoried, Tamarinds, Sultan Delhis Sikh Islam-British.

According to the Chinese Pilgrimage Xuanzang who visited Multan in 640 AD. Described about the city in detail, he found Multan agreeable prosperous and wrote at length. About a fabulous statue of the sun god coast in gold, and ornamented with rare gems. This statue is mentioned frequently in the history books and was responsible for Multan becoming a prosperous center of Pilgrimage.

The Muslim invaders broke up the statue, in the 10th Century, it was repaired again 900 years after, and it was destroyed by the Moguls King Aurangzeb.

In AD. 712, the Muslim invader Muhammad Bin Qasim was the 1st Muslim invader of Sind. Muhammad over threw King Dahir had him executed and sent the Kings two daughters to clip of Baghdad, the Caliph was furious about this action and called him back to Baghdad Multan then felt to Muhammad of Ghaznavi and become the center of Islamic Scholar’s, Artisans, as well as Uch Sharif 13th Century was the glorious time for the Muslim Scholars. The famous shrine which was built in1284 by the Toghluqe King was the shrines of Rukn-e-Alam. Which got for its renovation the Aga Khan Awards for Muslim architecture?

3. Balochistan
The largest province by landscape and smallest by population, Baluchistan is Barents. And small villages can be seen from long distances. Quetta its capital city situated to the west of Punjab and Sind NWFP bordered with Iran, Afghanistan and the Arabian coast of Makran. The Majority of the inhabitants are nomads, the sardari system still existing in this part of Pakistan it is famous for fruit orchard grapes. Apples –Almonds.

History of Baluchastan:
Evidence from Mehrgarh the oldest known archeological site on the Subcontinent elsewhere indicates that Baluchistan was inhabited as early as the stone age and was part of an orient line of communication between the Indus valley and Persia, and there to Mospotanian cultural that created at Mehrgarh feuded way around 3000 B.C at about the time the Indus valley civilization emerged. The Persian king cyrus the great conquered in hospitable coasted belt known as the Makran in the 6th century B.C and the Akhmenids want to rule over on Baluchistan, in 330 BC. Dharous the great were defeated by Alexander the great. After Alexander the power took over by Seleveeid Empire until the 3rd century BC. Then the Bactrian Greeks, Parthian, Sythian, Kushans, Hindu Brahmans later by Changes Khan Tamur Lane Moghuls–Sikh and British, Arabians 711 AD.

4. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
The North west frontier province situated on the ancient silk route of central Asia, this province is Known the gate of Central Asia most of the inhabitants are Pashtu speaking. It is a home of worriers according to the British writers. It’s famous for its forests and wild life.

History:
The Peshawar Plain the broad Kabul River from Khybar Pass to the Indus was called Gandhara. Hindu tribes were living there in the 2nd Millennium B.C. Ruled by Aryans, the cattle herded people spread over the plain of Peshawar and the Surrounding Mountains in 6th century B.C. The Achemieds formed a new satrapy in Gandhara Taxila under cyrus the great of Persia in 327 BC. Alexander the great sieged Ghandahara defeated the last king Persian Ambhi and trek down to the South sieged porous the great. In 324 BC. In 262 B.C. The Mouryan dynasty rosed up from east India captured Grandhara, and his grand son Ashoka became a powerful Buddhist king in Ghandahara.

Bactarians, in 2nd century B.C. The Bactrarian Greeks took over Gandhara, ruled upto 2nd Century AD. The decline of Bactarians the Sythiems and parthians came in power and built new cities one by one. Kushans came in Grandhara for a long time up to 6th Century AD. Then the hordes of Central Asia, Huns invaded Grandhara, After the Huns the Turish Hindu Turkish Shahis ruled Gandhara for a short time. Muslim, British Sikhs, Moguls from 16th Century to 19th centuries.

Peshawar.
Peshawar the name of Pushapura means the city of flowers. It’s a capital of the Northwest Frontier province. In inhabitants with 6,56 millions Peshawar is called the border city which is closed to the Afghan border to the famous Khyber Pass. Peshawar is one of the most oriental cities in Pakistan. The Moguls remain Bala Hisar Fort, the story tailor bazaar, and Muhabat Khan Mosque is one of the unforgettable remains in this city. The sculptures of Grandhara which is displayed in Peshawar museum is something extra ordinary collection for Buddhist world and archaeology loving people of the world. The most attractive Buddhist monastery 75, Km from Peshawar gives you the detail history of the Buddhist era. That is the city of Parthia’s Takhti-e-Bahi.

Chitral.
Chitral lies in the foot of Trich Mir the highest of Hindu Kush Mountain bordered with Afghanistan. The inhabitants are speaking Khowar and Urdu, surrounded. Valleys high mountains of 6500m to 7700m surround Chitral. The Kalash valleys are one of the impressive valleys in Chitral District. Chitral town is surprisingly large, its population having swelled by Afghan refugees from across the border. Visit Chitral fort and 100 years old Shahi mosque surrounded by clusters of enormous chinars trees. The impressive fort is the ancestral home of the mehtars of Chitral (The ex ruling family).

Kalash Valleys.
The Chitral Kafirs are called Kafir Kalash (Black Infidels) because of their women black robes. The women wear red and white beads necklaces and superb black headdresses which flow down their back, and are covered with shells and buttons usually crowned with a large red pompoms. They almost use the Kamez Shalwar by the men and woolen heat. Women play flute and drums normally they dance, but on festivals. They dance allot, that festival starts in mid may spring festival, August, harvesting festivals and September walnut festival, in these festivals they have big gatherings eating and dancing together.
Chitral prime attraction is the Kalash valleys, home of 3000 non-Muslim Kafir Kalash (or black infidels) who live in 20 small villages in the valleys of Birir, Bumboret and Rumbur. The Kafir Kalash still follow their own religion, a mixture of animism and ancestor-and fire-worship, and have retained some of their original culture. They make offerings to several gods: sajigor, the highest deity, is in charge of everything: Surisan protects the cattle, Goshedoi milk products, and Praba fruit. Most of the Kalash are pale skinned, and some of them even have fair hair and blue eyes, all of which give rise to the usual legend that they are descended from the followers of Alexander the great.

Ethnic Groups:
As results of invaders in the past Pakistan have many Ethnic groups-but the main are Sandhi-Punjabi-Baluchi- Pushtu, Urdu is the National Language, Official language is English.

Agriculture:
Pakistan has the opportunity of rivers that feeds the agriculture that’s the reason 75% of the population depends on agriculture. Producing best crops of cotton, Rice Maize, Wheat Barley lintels, Many kinds of Fruits vegetables.

Minerals:
Pakistan is rich of Minerals; oil Gas, Bronz- Precious stone coal Gold, Iron. Etc.

Flora & Fauna:
Pakistan has pine forests in Swat valley –Murree hills. Azad Kashmir, and in the North of Kohistan Baluchistan is mostly Barents, we have vegetation in the wet lands of Himalaya and Hindu Kush, wild life conservatism started in every areas to protect snow leopard, blue sheep. Marco polo Sheep Markhor, Ibex, and other rear birds from the desert to the high mountains.